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2016, v.13(01) 5-23

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近代早期学者-工匠问题的编史学考察
The Scholar-Craftsman Thesis:A Historiographical Survey

王哲然;
WANG Zheran;

摘要(Abstract):

学者-工匠问题是研究近代早期欧洲科学技术史和科学革命无法绕开的史学问题之一,相关研究旨在揭示这一时期学者和工匠如何相互借鉴、吸收、融合,并且解释这一过程如何影响乃至决定了新科学的产生。在齐尔塞尔看来,近代科学中新兴的科学家群体是学者和工匠融合的标志,二者在此前长期处于分离状态,对工匠的实验、量化方法和因果思维的吸收是新科学得以产生的决定性因素。潘诺夫斯基强调,文艺复兴时期科学的最主要特征体现为科学与艺术的融合,人文主义者和工匠之间广泛的交流合作引发了视觉表现技术方面的革命,成为近代科学诞生不可或缺的一环。霍尔认为,科学革命本质上是对中世纪自然哲学问题的全新解答,始终没有超出学术思想内部,学者自觉吸收了部分工匠传统中的问题和方法,但其价值非常有限,科学革命时期学者和工匠之间没有形成真正的互动关系。帕梅拉·隆利用交易地带的概念超越了学者-工匠简单的二元划分,所谓交易地带旨在描述15—16世纪存在于欧洲的一种特殊社会现象,不同背景和身份的人群在某个现实或虚拟的空间中进行复杂的知识和技能交换,在这个过程中学者和工匠的身份变得模糊不清,经验研究得到重视,交易地带是近代科学得以产生的土壤。
The Scholar-craftsman thesis,one of the most critical problems in the study of science and technology history in the early modern Europe,aims to reveal the mutual learning between scholars and craftsmen and therefore to interpret how this reciprocity influenced,or even caused the birth of the new science.In Zeisel's point of view,the emergence of the scientists as a new social group was the symbol of the fusion of scholars and artisans,for these two groups of people had been separating since the ancient times.New science was born only when scholars absorbed experimentation,causal interest,and quantitative method from craftsmen.Panofsky emphasizes the interaction of science and art as a defining characteristic of the Renaissance science.The numerous collaborations between humanists and artisans triggered a revolution in the realm of visual representation,which then became an essential step toward the modern science.A.R.Hall,however,argues that the Scientific Revolution in nature was no more than to offer new answers to the questions left by medieval natural philosophers,was a movement only within the sphere of the intellectuals.Scholars did learn from artisans,but the merits were limited.Indeed,the mutually beneficial reaction between the two groups had not formed yet during the Scientific Revolution.Pamela O.Long eliminates the dualism of scholars and craftsmen by introducing a new concept,trading zone,which is to describe a concrete or virtual meeting place in which people from different background exchange their substantive knowledge and expertise during the fifteenth and sixteenth century Europe.The identity of scholars and craftsmen blurred and the value of experience study promoted in the trading zones,that paved the way for the birth of modern science.

关键词(KeyWords): 学者;工匠;科学革命;齐尔塞尔;潘诺夫斯基;霍尔;帕梅拉·隆;交易地带;编史学
Scholar;Craftsman;the Scientific Revolution;E.Zilsel;E.Panofsky;A.R.Hall;P.Long;Trading Zone;Historiography

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家社科基金重大项目“世界科学技术通史研究”,项目编号14ZDB017

作者(Author): 王哲然;
WANG Zheran;

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