科学文化评论

2012, v.9(04) 5-23

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《科学革命的结构》之半世纪回顾
A Semi-Centennial Review of T. Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

苑举正;
YUANN Jeujenq

摘要(Abstract):

库恩的《科学革命的结构》一书可以说是20世纪后期在哲学界被引用最广泛的一本著作,被翻译成多种语言。其应用范围不限于哲学,还延伸至有关科学、社会、政治甚至艺术与经济学的讨论。50年来,《结构》为科学哲学界带来了重大影响,也招致了严重的抨击。这些影响的范围涵盖之广,不但导致史学界的争议,还引发出许多新兴的领域,更不要说有非常多的学者都以"典范转换"的概念来说明自己领域进步与迟缓的理由。在本文中,我们将按照下面四个方面来讨论库恩的《结构》:第一,《结构》在什么意义上否定了我们以往对于科学的认知?第二,波普学派与库恩的争议具有什么样的意义与影响?第三,为什么库恩在不断地被人指责为相对主义者的同时,又坚持自己是一位理性主义者?最后我们要看,自从《结构》一书出版以来,库恩做出了什么样的修正与坚持。本文最后提出结论,从综合性的观点评论库恩半个世纪以来在科学哲学界做出的贡献。
T. Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is likely to be considered the most cited philosophical book in the 20th Century. It has been translated in many languages and its application, far exceeding philosophy, has been extended to the areas relating to science, sociology, political science, economics and arts. For 50 years, Structure exerts tremendous influences on the domain of philosophy of science and also raises a huge criticism. These results are so widespread that they cause debatable issues in historiography and inspire the birth of new domains, let alone the fact that many people since then prefer to use the tag of ‘paradigm shift’ to designate the progress and the regress of their research domains. In this article, we are going to commemorate the contribution of Structure in accordance with the following four questions: 1. On the basis of what sense should we hold that Kuhn has negated our traditional view of science? 2. What are the consequences resulting from the debates between Kuhn and the Popperians? 3. Why was Kuhn accused of being relativist all the way through his career, while rigorously repudiated it by claiming a rationalist? 4. What kind of revisions and modifications have Kuhn ever taken since the publication of Structure 50 years ago? At last, we draw a conclusion at the end of this article by synthetically evaluating Kuhn’s contribution of a half century in the field of philosophy of science.

关键词(KeyWords): 库恩《科学革命的结构》典范;不可共量性;波普学派;相对主义
T. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Paradigm, Incommensurability, Popperians, Relativism

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作者(Author): 苑举正;
YUANN Jeujenq

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